ECOSYSTEM RESILIENCE AND NATURE-BASED ADAPTATION MEASURES
Nature-based solutions (NBS) receive increased attention due to their capability to contribute to effective climate adaptation on different scales and especially countries of the Global South have included them into their respective Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Ecosystem engineers in the coastal and riverine ecosystems provide a number of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services. Typical ecosystem engineers in coastal areas are mangroves, reefs, seagrass, seaweed, and dunes. The ecosystem services are regarded to be beneficial in facing future challenges due to climate change. NBS are regarded to be sustainable, environment-friendly, adaptable, self-sustaining, and economical and provide a number of co-benefits. The cluster intends to contribute with fundamental ecosystem research as well as applied approaches in several land-use scenarios with a special emphasis on water-related topics. Results are expected to address coastal hazards, extreme weather events like intense precipitation and droughts.